Wednesday, May 21, 2003

Walk in Balance: Book of Leadership Values

Moral Leadership Defined

  • Purpose:
    That which one strives for, an aim - a goal - result, an intention or resolve, determination.
  • Leadership:
    The capacity or ability to lead, to guide direct or gather about.
  • Service:
    The employment in duties or work for another and the performance of this work or duties as an act of assistance or benefit or favor:
  • Values:
    Principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable:
  • Moral:
    Arising from conscience or the sense of right and wrong, ideals based on strong likelihood or firm conviction, rather than on the actual evidence. Concerned with the judgment of the goodness or badness of human action and character, teaching or exhibiting goodness or correctness of character and behavior.
  • Ethical:
    Being in accordance with the accepted principles of right and wrongthat govern one’s conduct .
  • Virtue:
    Moral excellence and righteousness; goodness - courage and valor.

Moral leadership is developing followershipthrough a shared vision or code of ethics or morality.


I am humbled by those who have paved the way for me to be standing here now and awed by those who will blaze the paths beyond my comprehension.

Chapter One:
The Need for Moral Leadership

It is easy to blame the depravation of our world on leaders or entities gone bad. In the world of 2003 we can point out the fact that large billion dollar corporations have “fudged” their records to display non existent profits, or that charismatic religious zealots have misused their authority to steal from their follower, or that public representatives of our nation either display incompetence, ineptitude, or infidelity. After all, this country was founded on the separation ideology that we would not assume these immoral deeds.
To focus on America for this exercise, historically this country has always been in one moral upheaval after another. Our ENRON and WorldComm is no different than the Payola, or Game Show scandals, the railroad monopolies, land distribution, range wars over cattle and sheep, the territorial fights over animal pelts and farm lands. To pinpoint one president for infidelity is ludicrous in its assumption when we look at our national leaders historically. Then, why, do we have outrage at the decline of morality or the ascension of immoral leaders in today’s world?

The popular perception of leadership is one that leads. Therefore, we create an image of someone who should be the epitome of all things for us individually. This perception becomes harder to maintain as more and more individuals throw their hat into the ring in support of their leader. The leader has to maintain their image to all people at all times. This is folly in its simplicity and arrogance in its complexity.
Our dilemma with “moral Leadership” is that we are not moral followers. We expect our leaders to stand to an ideal that we often scoff at in its purity. I think of the constraints we put on teachers: we want teachers who are well rounded in their education; teachers who can bring experiential concepts tot heir instruction; teachers who are caring, wondrous, and wise. Yet! We want these same teachers to not drink, smoke, cuss, to think only the way we want them to think in accordance with our religious, cultural, traditional beliefs, we want teachers who have never done anything wrong, illegal, unscrupulous, or upsetting. In short: we want experienced, autonomous educated teachers who have experienced nothing, will do exactly as we say, and teach only what we think.

We are whitewashing our ideology or morality. As followers we want our leaders to be representative of our group think and to be accountable for our mistakes and misinformation. This is what we want as followers. And when we get leaders who do as we as a collective instruct – why is it we then scream that what we really want is a moral leader? What we need is moral followership. We have moral leaders, these are the leaders who stand for what they believe in, who question the status quo, these are the people who have experienced life and are willing to sacrifice their livelihoods for what they believe to be true and right. We decry these individuals as something foul and seek those familiar surrounding who purport our ideals of “morality.” Instead we should follow and seek guidance from those who demonstrate truth goodness and beauty in their everyday existence.

Chapter Two:
Literature Review

Sergiovanni, T. J. (1992). Moral leadership: Getting to the heart of school improvement.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Thomas Sergiovanni shows the reader how leadership with a moral center can transform schools from institutions to virtuous communities of learning. Moral leadership is a dimension which includes a moral purpose, values, and beliefs that are generated through the hearts, minds, and souls of those who serve in the community. The intention of leading with a moral core is to do things right, rather than doing the right things. Connecting with others by finding what the basic values of each person within that organization are, will lead to a natural interdependence of those people.

Sergiovanni takes a look at six modes at which people arrive at knowledge. The are: authority (sacred & secular), sense experience, deductive logic, emotion, intuition, and science. Each mode determines our personal values, as well as assisting in our sense of truth. These modes also influence the choices a person makes and their behavior. Each mode has a unique characteristic and varies in acceptance from society. The six modes balance one another and contribute to a person’s process of gathering knowledge.

What motivates people to take action? Previous theories made assumptions that people act purely on personal pleasure, self-interest and from the individual choices they make for themselves. The author disputes this and looks at several theories that dig deeper to see a person’s true motivation. Several thoughts were shared form the Utilitarian view to a study of teacher motivation. These examples stressed a desire for people to assist others and the chance to reach their potential. Leaders taking time to find out people’s true motivation will help start transforming schools from ordinary organizations into learning communities.

Who, what, and why should one follow? Sergiovannni outlines several sources from which authority can be derived. Bureaucratic authority tends to follow a set hierarchy, or rules and regulations. We need to comply or face consequences. Psychological authority involves human relations or social compliance. Peer pressure makes us want to comply. Technical-rational authority is defined by logic and scientific inquiry. We comply because of what is considered to be the truth. Professional authority utilizes, knowledge and expertise. We respond to professional values, or accepted tenets of practice and expertise. Moral authority is derived from obligation and duty or shared community values, ideas and ideals. We respond to these shared commitments.

To have leadership you need to have a person who will lead and others who will follow. Leadership has to do with the leader’s ability to not only get others to do something but to get them to enjoy doing it. Sergiovanni expresses that Direct Leadership can be substituted with two distinct concepts: Community norms: communities are defined by their values and their beliefs which bond people together for a common cause. The Professional Ideal: is further delineated by competence and virtues. Commitment to exemplary practice means practicing at the edge of teaching or accepting one’s responsibility for one’s own professional development. To do so we need to develop and follow a “code of ethics: which define the duties and moral responsibilities of teachers.

Citing Hackman and Oldham (p. 60), research has shown that workers experience greater job satisfaction with intrinsic motivation when three psychological states are present: meaningfulness, or the extent to which a person perceives work as being worthwhile, responsibility, or the extent to which a person believes he or she is accountable for the outcome, and results, that is, determining whether the outcome of effort is satisfactory. “When these feelings are experienced, people do not have to depend on someone else to lead them” (p.61).
“Flow” involves being so intrinsically motivated in a task or activity that concentration is intense and passage of time is lost. A feeling of harmony and absorption in the task is experienced. To experience this flow the person must be convinced that he or she has the skills to cope with the challenges at hand. Having the right amount of control over a task, matched by the available skills, can lead to job satisfaction and further intrinsic motivation. When flow is experienced in a classroom or workplace, it can be a substitute for leadership as it leads to higher levels of performance and effectiveness.

Professionalism, according to Sergiovanni, encourages teachers and principals to be self-managers. Self-managers can work without close supervision, and are able to make decisions on their own. They have learned to be followers in that they are committed to a purpose outside themselves. Thus leaders and followers are joined in a transforming leadership of ideas, values, and commitment.

School cultures have evolved into what often can be described as a lonely, isolative culture. Teachers, according to Sergiovanni, have to take responsibility for their collegiality or lack thereof. Sergiovanni suggests leaders avoid forcing collegiality through direct supervision, standardized work, and standardized outputs. Instead, he advocates for shared values, professional socialization, and natural interdependence.

Sergiovanni focuses on the concept of the “Virtuous School”, or a school guided by a moral imperative shared by stakeholders. He uses the principles of justice and beneficence as moral principles leaders can use as driving forces. The “covenant” forged between those involved in a school, is according to the author, of prime importance in the creation of a virtuous school.

The final chapter of Moral Leadership is a classic overview of servant leadership. Early on it references Herman Hesse’s book Journey to the East. The chapter describes using several real world and philosophical examples why there is a need for a leader to be a servant and benefits of this style of leadership. It contrasts the differences in styles between “power over” and “power to.” The “power to” style was also describe as the female style. Lastly, it described how servant leadership is tightly tied to moral authority as they both use persuasion. Servant leaders use their moral authority to practice stewardship over their charges.

A new era of leadership is emerging because of our need to work with a purpose. The ability for a leader to connect to the values and emotions of the people within that organization will assist in transforming the organization. The focus no longer is in action for the sake of action, but action with meaning and purpose. This strengthens everyone’s desire to do what is right to build that community. The Moral Leadership Model is a way to make connections with others, while bonding values with purpose. This book provides a thoughtful and inspiring message for the reader to re-think their sense of purpose in transforming organizations.

Chapter Three:
Humanities Exhibit

Cash, J. (2000). The Mercy Seat. Solitary Man: American Recordings III.
Nashville: American Label.

Leadership is by doing, by modeling, by being that “thing” you expect to see in others. I picked this piece of music not because of the song a non benign look at the death penalty from inside the mind of someone sitting upon the electric chair. Nor because of the artist performing the song. It is the combination of those two elements along with how the recording was produced. Johnny Cash sounds like he is giving a deathbed recitation rather than singing a song, but the man's aura and mystique carry the words to a place inside of us that we seldom want to look at.

The song itself is eerie and revealing its own agenda in a particular perspective. But it is the inclusion of the bass timbre of the piano keys as the song build upon a crescendo slowly and deliberately. The piano presents a kicking, a metaphor of a body being jolted with fifty thousand volts of electricity, its rattle as the chair vibrates, the body convulses: all of these can be felt within this song as if we the listener are being jolted to death. This feeling and Johnny Cash’s use of repetition within the song, over and over emphasizing the fear and protestations, the truths or lies and the perceptions of each: what is truth? Is it an eye for an eye? Or a truth for a truth? ultimately impress upon us our own fears.

The Mercy Seat

by Nick Cave

(as performed by Johnny Cash)

It began when they took me from my home

And put me on Death Row,

Of which I am totally innocent, you know.

I began to warm and chill

To objects and their fields,

A ragged cup, a twisted mop

The face of Jesus in my soup

Those sinister dinner deals

The meal trolley's wicked wheels

A hooked bone rising from my food

All things either good or ungood.

And the mercy seat is waiting

And I think my head is burning

And in a way I'm yearning

To be done with all this measuring of truth.

An eye for an eye

A tooth for a tooth

And anyway I told the truth

And I'm not afraid to die.

I hear stories from the chamber

How Christ was born into a manger

And like some ragged stranger

Died upon the cross

And might I say it seems so fitting in its way

He was a carpenter by trade

Or at least that's what I'm told

Like my good hand I tattooed E.V.I.L. across it's brother's fist

That filthy five! They did nothing to challenge or resist.

In Heaven His throne is made of gold

The ark of his Testament is stowed

A throne from which I'm told

All history does unfold.

Down here it's made of wood and wire

And my body is on fire

And God is never far away.

Into the mercy seat I climb

My head is shaved, my head is wired

And like a moth that tries

To enter the bright eye

I go shuffling out of life

Just to hide in death awhile

And anyway I never lied.

And the mercy seat is waiting

And I think my head is burning

And in a way I'm yearning

To be done with all this measuring of truth.

An eye for an eye

And a tooth for a tooth

And anyway I told the truth

And I'm not afraid to die.

And the mercy seat is burning

And I think my head is glowing

And in a way I'm hoping

To be done with all this weighing up of truth.

An eye for an eye

And a tooth for a tooth

And I've got nothing left to lose

And I'm not afraid to die.

And the mercy seat is glowing

And I think my head is smoking

And in a way I'm hoping

To be done with all these looks of disbelief.

An eye for an eye

And a tooth for a tooth

And anyway there was no proof

And I’m not afraid to die

And the mercy seat is smoking

And I think my head is melting

And in a way its helping

To be done with all this twisting of the truth.

A lie for a lie

And a truth for a truth

And I've got nothing left to lose

And I'm not afraid to die.

And the mercy seat is waiting

And I think my head is burning

And in a way I'm yearning

To be done with all this measuring of truth.

An eye for an eye

And a truth for a truth

And anyway I told the truth

But I'm afraid I told a lie.

Chapter Four:
Historical Case Study

Remember me

I am free at large

untamable not nearly as hard

to find as America

Fr. Daniel Berrigan

Perhaps the most influential person on my leadership, and albeit my entire Te of existence has to be Father Daniel Berrigan. This notion of a Catholic Priest being one of my "heroes" as it were is irony within itself. For the teachings of any prescribed organized religion, much less the epitome of such - the Catholic church, is contrary to all of my spiritual endeavors. Yet, Father Berrigan stands out as the pure iconoclastic emblem of the concept of spirituality. As a necessary aside I find it important to stress that I have been in admiration of such Christian sects as the "Jesuits" and "Franciscans", not because of the spiritual and religious affiliations but because of their spirituality. I admire the Jesuits, not because they came to different lands and imposed their religion on others, but because of the courage of these individuals who felt it necessary to encourage their faith on foreign and often hostile lands, and who moved through their lives guided only by their faith. I admire the Franciscan order, again regardless of religiosity, but because of their idea of balance, that we all exist in harmony with each other, our world about us, and the living things that make this planet our home.

It is this doctrine of religion that brings me back to Father Berrigan. Daniel Berrigan was a young Jesuit priest, he was knowledgeable, creative, had a flair for words which has led to volumes of poetic works. He was a young, American priest; enigmatic, charismatic, he was gracious, humble, passionate, devoted, and energized by his faith, his spirituality, and his raison de etre: the Church: the embodiment of all that was spiritual sacred to Father Berrigan. Father Berrigan was a remarkable priest, as was his younger brother Phillip. And through them the diocese saw a powerful, and political team, (this was concurrent with the Kennedy regime in America, during the mid- to late-nineteen fifties, where the Kennedy's as Catholics had taken power in the senate, the Catholic Church also sought the empowerment of the Berrigans. In a sense then, establishing the Church as a very powerful political force in American society.) This previous information is important, as one of the leadership tenets we see is self-sacrifice and Father Daniel Berrigan knew he and his brother were being groomed for higher offices. Father Berrigan loved God, his faith, the church, and all that it represented. He had written several volumes of poetry and was creating a name for himself as well as the Jesuit faith a poetic-theologian. He was much admired by the his peers, who did not see him as an upstart but rather saw him a passionate priest overcome with the spirit of God.

Historically crises beget leaders, Father Berrigan and the Catholic church were to become embroiled in a war - most notable it was America's entrance into the "police action" of Vietnam. Father Berrigan believed that his faith and the church needed to make a stand against the atrocities of war, and that it was the church's right to protect lives and become involved in the stopping of war, any war. In a very political and fearful time in America, Father Berrigan stood for what he believed to be "right", for what he believed his faith and religion deemed necessary and proper.

As the Catholic church distanced itself from the war in Vietnam, and also decried the war on American soil by those protesting the war effort; Father Berrigan became more concerned and more forthright in his ideology that the church needed to create a safe-haven for all. Father Daniel Berrigan, along with his brother Father Philip Berrigan, began to house draft resistors, they were instrumental in developing a nation-wide "underground railroad" of homes, churches, and businesses that would assist draft resistors by housing them or providing a means to escape into Canada. Father Daniel Berrigan also took his war to the media, he made public displays of burning draft cards and other draft credentials, of peacefully protesting the war, of peaceful demonstrations, and very visible criticisms of the Church.

The more Father Berrigan fought for the preservation of life the more the church distanced themselves from their once promising protégé; with this distancing, Father Berrigan found himself more embroiled in the movement to end the war in Vietnam. Of this demonstrative epoch the culmination came when Father Berrigan and several others broke into a draft registration office in Catonsville, Maryland and removed and subsequently destroyed all of the draft files they could find. As the draft office was a "federal" office, this resulted in Father Berrigan being arrested for many different crimes, including treason. Father Berrigan was an idealist and an optimist. He believed that when the public heard of the atrocities of the war, the imbalance of those being drafted to fight it, (specifically poor, minority boys), that they would rally to his defense. Unfortunately, the public viewpoint of the war in Vietnam and the war at home involving the protestors, would not change for several more years. Father Berrigan found himself guilty as charged and facing a lifetime in prison. Father Berrigan did what many political extremists do and went "underground" to avoid prison. This resulted in his having to give everything up - especially his identity.

Too often, when people make the choice for self-preservation at the cost of their identity they feel that they have lost everything; especially their meaning or their mission. When faced with this decision Father Berrigan came out of hiding and was subsequently re-arrested, (Berrigan & Coles, 1971). While in prison, Father Berrigan was able to continue his fight against the Vietnam war, he continued his prolific sense of writing - albeit now his writings were more radically charged and poignant, many times raising accusations against the American government, people, and the Catholic Church in their continued support of genocide, (Berrigan, 1971). With this the American public were more willing to hear what the "radical" priest had to say, and after subsequent appeals a new trial was awarded Father Berrigan and the "Catonsville 9" and in a turning point in the war protest movement a jury of peers found them not guilty of all crimes, including the articles of treason.

Father Berrigan true to his ideology had taken on the military and the development of nuclear weapons and other means of mass destruction as his mantle. Throughout the ensuing decades Father Berrigan would once again try to change the ways of death. He would spend many more years in prison for various endeavors that supported the well-being of all mankind. Father Berrigan, even to this day, leads "raids" on missile silos where they spill red paint on the warheads, hit them with hammers to demonstrate the ridiculousness of trying to "hide" weapons of mass destruction. And even though the church has excommunicated Father Berrigan he still wholeheartedly believes in his faith, and that it is the desire of all to prevent mass destruction and genocide.

Chapter Five:
Practitioner Case Study

Promises Made and Promises Kept

When first running for U.S. Senate in 1992, Russ Feingold made a contract with the people of the state, which he painted on his garage doors in Middleton, (Russ Feingold: United States Senator, 2003):

Contract Between RUSS FEINGOLD and the PEOPLE of WISCONSIN
1. I will rely on Wisconsin citizens for most of my contributions.
2. I will live in Middleton, Wisconsin. My children will go to school here and I will spend most of my time here in Wisconsin.
3. I will accept no pay raise during my six-year term in office.
Russell D. FeingoldNovember 3, 1991
Russ later made two additional promises:
4. I will hold a "Listening Session" in each of Wisconsin's 72 counties each year of my six-year term in office.
5. I will hire the majority of my Senate staff from individuals who are from Wisconsin or have Wisconsin backgrounds.

Senator Russ Feingold was the only Senator to oppose the USA Patriot Act. Making this choice may have resulted in a career suicide. And yet Senator Feingold followed his conscience in his decision making. “Ultimately, the responsibility to make the decision, and to accept the consequences, rests with me. Someone will disagree with every vote, every action I take in public life… In the end, I face criticism knowing I have voted my conscience, and to the best of my ability, I have done the job the people have entrusted me to do” (Kay, 2003).

An effective leader needs to be a good listener, and must be able to acknowledge there are valid positions other than their own. When faced with decisions on divisive or emotionally charged issues Senator Feingold offers the following thoughts”

Don’t be too certain that you’re right

If you disagree with someone about an argument, do so with humility

When disagreeing, acknowledge as much of the other side’s position as possible to let them know you care and respect their opinion, and to balance the argument.

Give the person disagreeing with you a chance to see where you’re coming from
Be patient. Don’t be deterred by initial opposition, and be prepared to explain your position over and over again if necessary.

Don’t become too attached to your political position – “You don’t own it.”

Russ Feingold, (Kay, 2003).

Wisconsin traditions and Wisconsin politics have been central to Senator Russ Feingold's life. In 1917, his family settled in Janesville, Wisconsin, where Feingold was born to parents Leon and Sylvia on March 2, 1953. Growing up in Janesville, Feingold's political views were shaped by discussions at the family dinner table and his father's early involvement in the Progressive Movement.

In his first try for an elective position at age 29, Feingold defeated a longtime incumbent to take the seat in the Wisconsin State Senate. Feingold was re-elected in 1986, and in 1990 faced no opponent for re-election to a four-year term. When Feingold first ran for the U.S. Senate in 1992, he won a tough three-way primary with 70 percent of the vote, and went on to defeat two-term incumbent Robert Kasten. In 1998, after keeping his historic pledge to limit his campaign spending to $1 per voter, and disallowing party soft money from being spent on his behalf, Feingold defeated Congressman Mark Neumann to win a second term. Feingold looks to Wisconsin's values to guide his work in the U.S. Senate-the state's tradition of progressive politics and civility in government, and its history of respect for the public dollar.

Russ Feingold works to carry forward the legacy of Wisconsin leaders like Bob La Follette and Gaylord Nelson by fighting for better wages, protecting Social Security and Medicare, supporting Wisconsin's farmers, safeguarding the environment and striving for the best in public education and quality health care.
Senator Feingold has been recognized repeatedly by both the Concord Coalition and Taxpayers for Common Sense for his efforts to cut wasteful spending. His campaign to reign in government waste goes hand-in-hand with his work to clean up the federal campaign finance system, a bipartisan effort he leads with Republican Senator John McCain of Arizona.

In an effort to ensure the civil rights of all Americans, Feingold has introduced legislation to study the problem of racial profiling on U.S. roadways, and he has authored a bill to enact a moratorium on the death penalty so that a commission can examine, among other potential problems, the role of racial discrimination in the application of capital punishment.

As a member of the Senate's Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Feingold works to make human rights concerns a higher priority in U.S. foreign policy. He also serves on the Senate Budget Committee, the Senate Judiciary Committee, and the Senate's Special Committee on Aging.

Russ Feingold has two daughters, Jessica and Ellen, and his wife, Mary Feingold, has two sons, Sam and Ted Speerschneider. The Feingolds live in Middleton, Wisconsin, (Russ Feingold: United States Senator, 2003):

Chapter Six:
Moral Leadership Platform

What is Moral Leadership?

It is dangerous to be right in matters of which
the established authorities are wrong.


Cowboys & Indians

I believe stories are how we learn from one another , this one happened when I was quite young and was a fluctuation of the flow, (Brigs & Peat, 1999). I must have been five years of age because this story concerns my mother and she was dead by the time I was seven. My sixth year encompassed in her slowly passing away. My mother was a vibrant woman, liberal in her ideals and philosophy. I remember this one occasion as I came bolting through the front porch door. My mother was in the living room doing the ironing in front of the black and white Philco. The television set sat on that 1960's semblance of innovatedness and elegance of living room furniture that was comprised of simple brass tubes and wires. Mom was ironing in front of the TV as was the method of women in her day, and on the television was one of the serial westerns that were inundating the broadcast airwaves in the 1960's. I glanced at the television and watched as an "Indian" was shot down by a cowboy. See, this fit my perception, my white American media "Ovaltine" lens: everything I knew. Cowboys shoot Indians –that is what they do. And Indians get shot by Cowboys: that is what Indians do. Being the swaggering all American cowboy that I was I cheered the shooting. But even before I could relish in my mind what it must have felt like to be the daring cowpoke slinging a six-shooter from the holster, before I could even digest the imaginary gunpowder shot mixed with the dry breeze of the prairie west, before I could even squint down the site on my right hand thumb and forefinger and squeeze off that wondrous shot… my mother stopped my cold, dead, admonishing. Her eyes welled with tears in the anger, fear, hatred, remorse that swelled into her as she saw her son her baby perversed in the world of media fed racism. She looked hard at my and my gun hand felt limp her words penetrated deeply "The Indian was the good guy, the cowboy killed them and took their land, the Indians were the good guys…" 'The Indians were the good guys?' I looked up at my mother, "but…" 'The Indians? Were the good guys?' 'But the cowboy wore a white hat. And we all know that the cowboy in white was the good guy, bad guys wore black. How could the white hat cowboy be the bad guy? And we all know the Indians are bad so bad in fact that we called them 'injuns' - they weren't even real people…'

At that moment I realized I had done something wrong, something monumental, and for the first time in my short life my brain started to trigger differently - things are not always the way they seem. This lesson in many ways haunts me throughout my life. I say haunt, because while thinking differently, outside of the box, shifting one's paradigms and all is good it is also very painful. Thinking against the norm, the media fed populace, the status quo often leaves one cold embittered and alone, (Faludi, 1999; Havel, 1986).

The world is not static, and the status quo is not sacred.

Harry S. Truman

The Altruistic Tightrope

Why do we do what it is that we do? We help others because we get a “good” feeling in doing so. We battle with ourselves over altruistic behavior & our personal desires. We battle constantly this altruistic dichotomy – the good v. evil. The Yin and Yang. Of course doing the right thing can be pleasurable. Does this mean we should not do it? Out of some bizarre tradition of denial? Finding our balance this is the key, our balance between desire and deed. We then become the Heroes and Villains who define morality and continually pose the question whose morality is just?

It is not that I am dark, rather I am indignant by my fellow human beings. It is our moral imperative by being cognizant entities to point out those things that we know to be “wrong.” Instead we bleat the status quo and refrain from ownership by blaming destiny or some other.

Moral Leadership

Every night as I lay down to sleep I ask myself this question “What have I done today to make the world a better place?” This is the platform that I stand upon.


Berrigan, SJ, D. (1971). No Bars to Manhood. New York, NY: Bantam Books.
Berrigan, SJ, D. (1972). America is Hard to Find: Notes from the underground and
letters from Danbury Prison. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company.
Berrigan, SJ, D. (1987). To Dwell in Peace: an Autobiography. New York, NY: Harper
& Row, Publishers Inc.
Berrigan, D. & Coles, R. (1971). The Geography of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Briggs, J. & Peat. F. D. (1999). Seven Lessons of Chaos: Timeless Wisdom from the
Science of Change. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Cash, J. (2000). The Mercy Seat. Solitary Man: American Recordings III.
Nashville: American Label
Faludi, S. (1999). Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man. New York, NY: Perennial.
Havel, V. (1986). Living in Truth. Bungay, Suffolk: Richard Clay, LTD.

Kay, K.E. (2003). Personal conversation with Senator Russ Feingold.
Russ Feingold: United States Senator.(2003).
Sergiovanni, T. J. (1992). Moral leadership: Getting to the heart of school improvement.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.